Key Moments Throughout History
The Salvation Army, particularly in its early days, has been characterised by a pioneering spirit that has resulted in some major achievements and ventures.
1880 Salvation Army begins in Australia
“If there’s a man here who hasn’t had a square meal today, let him come home to tea with me.” With those words, The Salvation Army began its work in Australia on 5 September, 1880.
Two members of The Salvation Army in London, Edward Saunders and John Gore, led the first Salvation Army meeting in Australia from the back of a green grocer’s cart in Adelaide Botanic Park. As well as offering an invitation to the hungry, the meeting began the Army’s work of “saving souls”, proclaiming the power of God to bring peace to individual lives. This two-fold mission of the Army has often been described as “Christianity with its sleeves rolled up.”
1883 Prison ministry established
The Salvation Army’s world-wide prison ministry began during the 1880s when Major James Barker began conducting chapel services in the Melbourne gaol. The work quickly developed to include a ministry for ex-prisoners whereby Salvation Army officers – the ‘Prison Gate Brigade’ – would stand at the prison gate and invite men upon release to start a new life. The service aimed to keep people from returning to their old lives of crime.
Barker opened a prison-gate home in Carlton, Melbourne, in 1883, the first Salvation Army institution of its kind in the world. Other homes soon followed. The Salvation Army’s ministry to prisoners continues today and has been expanded to include court chaplaincy.
1885 Raised age of consent
The Salvation Army successfully campaigned to have the age of consent in the UK raised from 13 years of age to 16 years during 1885.
1885 Missing Persons work
Missing Persons work was one of the earliest Salvation Army social programs to develop. Established in London in 1885 as the Inquiry Department, by the end of 1885 there were offices in a number of overseas countries including Australia. The ‘hallelujah detectives’, as they were called, searched for missing persons with a view to reuniting families. They also helped young women who were pregnant and unmarried to track down reluctant fathers and encourage them to support their children.
Today, with branches across Australia, the Family Tracing Service registers over 2,000 new searches each year, and between 75-80% of those are successfully closed. Drawing on agencies in 103 countries, the service works internationally, restoring relationships across the world.
1890 First Employment bureau
In 1890, Australia experienced the worst depression in the nation's short history, with unemployment worsening each day. By winter 1890, the Army had opened a free labour bureau in Melbourne to help people find jobs, the first formally operating employment bureau in Australia. Soon there were also labour bureaux operating in Sydney and Adelaide. As well as acting as job-finding agencies, the bureaux served thousands of meals to the unemployed.
After the labour exchanges closed, the Army continued trying to find people work informally through its various social centres. Since the mid 1980s The Salvation Army has been back in the business of helping people find work, more recently through 'Employment Plus'.
1890s Pioneer for Safety Matches
Red-tipped safety matches were introduced by The Salvation Army in England during the 1890s at a time when matches were still produced using poisonous yellow phosphorus, which caused the fatal disease ‘Phossy Jaw’ in poor factory workers.
1900 World’s first feature film
Operating from 1897 to 1910, The Salvation Army Limelight Department was Australia’s first film production company. Among its many achievements, The Limelight Department is credited with producing the world’s first multi-media presentation using the moving picture film technology of the day.
The film, ‘Soldiers of the Cross’, was produced during 1900 and the Limelight Department also recorded the birth of the nation at Federation in 1901.
1914-1918 WWI ministry
It was during the First World War that The Salvation Army became recognised for the ministry of its chaplains, tending to the physical and spiritual needs of diggers wherever they were. One example was the chaplain to the First Infantry Brigade, “Fighting Mac” McKenzie, who went ashore with the troops at Gallipoli.
In a three-day period, Fighting Mac conducted 647 funerals and after one funeral service he found three bullet-holes in his hat. He was later awarded a Military Cross for his work, an honour virtually unheard of for a military chaplain. McKenzie was also the first accredited Australian chaplain to be sent overseas.
The Salvation Army was involved supporting the troops in every theatre of that terrible conflict. At Le Havre, in France, the famous “Hop In” sign made its first appearance, accompanied by the Red Shield symbol of service. The Hop In centres offered soldiers a cup of tea and a bit of advice or encouragement if they needed it.
1920s Children’s holiday camps
Children living in the slums of Sydney during the 1920s rarely had the opportunity to experience life outside the slums. The Salvation Army decided to offer these children the ‘holiday of a lifetime’ at the Army’s Collaroy centre on Sydney’s beautiful northern beaches. During the Depression, mothers were invited too.
The Salvation Army continues to run Red Shield holiday camps for disadvantaged children at The Collaroy Centre at least twice a year, as well as holidays for single mothers and their children twice a year.
1923 Foster House opened in Sydney
During 1923 The Salvation Army opened Foster House in Sydney’s Surry Hills to provide accommodation for homeless men. Located in Foster Street, Foster House was a five-storey building with dormitory style accommodation that slept 220 men.
Although useful in its time, by the 1990s rehabilitation methods had markedly changed. The emphasis today is on providing personal support to encourage men to lead more independent lives. To this end, In 1996, The Salvation Army opened a new, purpose-built facility near the original Foster House.
1939-1945 WWII ministry
As WWII commenced, The Salvation Army went to work, at home and on the battlefield offering home comforts, advice, support and spiritual assistance. The famous Salvation Army ‘Hop in’ tents and canteens were set up in training camps in Australia, in the deserts of North Africa and in the jungles of New Guinea. Where an Australian soldier, sailor or airman served, The Salvation Army endeavoured to be there too.
1964 Addiction treatment programs
The Salvation Army has worked with those struggling with addiction since its beginning in the 1860s. In Australia, a rehabilitation farm was set up at Collaroy in the early 1900s. However, The Salvation Army Bridge Program for rehabilitation began in earnest in August, 1964, when the Nithsdale clinic was opened behind Salvation Army headquarters in Sydney.
By 1969, the program had developed into the long-term residential program it is today, featuring three main phases of rehabilitation including time spent at a rural farm or industrial centre. Today the Bridge Program includes 12 facilities in NSW and Qld.
1965 Outback flying service
In January 1965, The Salvation Army purchased a four-seater Auster Autocar aircraft to be based in Longreach and used for outreach over the vast Queensland outback. Lieutenants Alf and Noela Dawkins were appointed to pioneer the flying padre service.
During six years in the job, Alf covered an incredible amount of miles, ministering to many people on isolated homesteads, including conducting weddings, baptisms and funerals. Since the Dawkins' time in Longreach, there have been five "flying padres". The base was moved to Mount Isa in 2000 when the name changed to the Outback Flying Service.
Today the service covers around two million square kilometres of central and north Queensland and supports more than 130 families on remote properties.
Australia is the only country in The Salvation Army world that operates flying padre services.
1974 Cyclone Tracy relief effort
When Cyclone Tracy devastated Darwin, The Salvation Army was among the first to fly into Darwin on Boxing Day, 1974. The disaster called for an emergency relief program on a scale seldom seen anywhere in the world. The Salvation Army moved in hundreds of volunteers and provided food, clothing and comfort to the thousands in need.
Volunteers also assisted with the evacuation of 30,000 residents and helped them find temporary accommodation in the south. They then followed up for many weeks with relief assistance and family reunions.
1977 Granville rail disaster
When a crowded, peak-hour train was derailed at Granville, NSW, in January 1977, The Salvation Army arrived even before ambulances or emergency services. Auxiliary-Captain Frank Wilson of The Salvation Army’s social services centre at Mount Druitt was at the scene immediately, giving out drinks from his emergency services unit to shocked survivors.
Salvation Army officers from all around Sydney were then brought in to assist, and by midday 5,000 meals had been served. Ongoing emotional support was provided for families bereaved by the tragedy.
1983 Salvo Care Line
In late 1983, The Salvation Army established a 24-hour telephone counselling service as a pilot project managed by Salvationist, Alan Staines. Alan had worked on the streets of Sydney’s Kings Cross and could see the need for such a service to meet the needs of people in crisis at any hour of the day or night.
The service was staffed largely by volunteers and initially operated in at the Staines’ house. The volunteer counsellors at Salvo Care Line answered more than 55,000 calls every year. Salvo Care Line has since closed.
1992 Oasis Youth Support Network
In June 1992, The Salvation Army opened Sydney’s first 24-hour crisis centre for homeless youth, the Oasis Youth Care Centre in Surry Hills. It was a joint project between the Advertising Federation of Australia and The Salvation Army.
Since that time thousands of homeless young people have been helped to rebuild their shattered lives.
In 1997, the Oasis Youth Care Centre amalgamated with the other Salvation Army youth services in inner city Sydney, and the decision was made to name the new network after the original Oasis - becoming the Oasis Youth Support Network.
1994 Moneycare financial counselling service
In order to more effectively address the underlying factors contributing to financial hardship, The Salvation Army introduced its Moneycare financial counselling service in 1994. A free service offering a mixture of counselling and financial advice, Moneycare aims to break the cycle of dependence upon welfare assistance.
From one small office in 1994, the service now operates in 12 locations throughout NSW, ACT and Qld and assists more than 5,000 people each year.
1995 Rural chaplaincy created
The Salvation Army’s involvement in the Farm Hand appeal of 1994 highlighted the need for ongoing pastoral care in rural Australia. As a result, in 1995 The Salvation Army created the position of Rural Chaplain for NSW, to which Envoy Bill Sweeting was appointed.
With the ravages of drought continuing into the early 21st century, The Salvation Army expanded the Rural Chaplaincy, which now includes seven chaplains working in various parts of NSW and Qld. The chaplains travel thousands of kilometres across vast areas each year, bringing spiritual care, practical assistance and friendship to farmers and their families.
1996 Port Arthur shooting tragedy
The Port Arthur shooting tragedy of 1996 shocked the nation. A Salvation Army trauma management team, headed up by veteran Salvation Army chaplain Lieut-Colonel Don Woodland, travelled to Tasmania in response, providing counselling and ongoing support to the deeply traumatised victims.
1997 Thredbo landslide
When a landslide claimed 17 lives in the NSW ski village of Thredbo during 1997, The Salvation Army was there to assist in the rescue effort and to help rescue-workers, volunteers and families of victims by providing a basic catering service, counselling, and chaplaincy support.
Over a period of eight days, 16,000 meals and refreshments were provided. Salvation Army chaplain, Lieut-Colonel Don Woodland also assisted landslide survivor, Stuart Diver and his family, and they developed a close friendship.
Salvation Army chaplains helped at hospitals and airports around Australia following the terrorist attacks in Bali which affected hundreds of Australians during 2002. Chaplains provided comfort and counsel to victims and their families, traumatised tourists, airport/airline staff and emergency services personnel.
2003 Canberra Bushfires
During 18th–22nd January 2003 severe bushfires in Canberra caused over 490 injuries, severe damage to the outskirts of the city and several deaths. Almost 70% of the Australian Capital Territory's pastures, forests, and nature parks were severely damaged. After burning around the edges of Australia’s capital for a week, the fires entered the suburbs of Canberra on 18th January. Over the next ten hours, four people died and more than 500 homes were destroyed or severely damaged.
The Salvation Army was on hand to assist at 4 evacuation centres, cooking and serving meals to thousands, providing emotional support and helping to assess needs. In the week preceding the fires Salvation Army personnel were on hand to serve the needs of firefighters in the Snowy Mountains and Brindabella Ranges.
2004 Australia’s first Problem Gambling Centre
During November 2004 The Salvation Army announced plans to commence the Sydney Problem Gambling Centre, the first of its kind in Australia, in the city’s south-west.
The Problem Gambling Centre will work in cooperation with The Salvation Army Bridge Program for rehabilitation and its principles of abstinence, but will be a dedicated place for problem gamblers to seek help.
2004 Boxing Day Tsunami, South-East Asia
The South Asia tsunami disaster presented The Salvation Army internationally with the biggest-ever program of relief and reconstruction in its 135-year history, involving 5,000 Salvation Army personnel on the ground.
Because The Salvation Army had existing churches and programs in affected areas, local Salvationists were able to respond immediately after the disaster with relief and support. Reconstruction work and the rebuilding of lives will continue for years to come.
2005 Salvos Legal launched
In 2005 Salvos Legal was birthed by pioneer Luke Geary. In Sydney’s Auburn Geary set up the free service for clients who would otherwise be unable to afford legal assistance. Over the next five years Luke and a small team provided free advice in over 750 cases. In 2010 the service was expanded to cover New South Wales and Queensland, with nation telephone counselling free of charge.
2008 Hope for Life launched
On 3rd September 2008 The Salvation Army launched ‘Hope for Life’, an Australia-wide suicide prevention & bereavement support service. Hope for Life offers information and training programs which are designed to help individuals to care for those who may be at risk of suicide and those who have been bereaved by suicide. Hope for Life also offers support groups and the Lifekeeper Memory Quilt which enables people bereaved by suicide to share their personal stories, tributes and photos
2009 Salvation Army responds to Black Saturday Bushfires
The Black Saturday Bushfires in Victoria, of February 7 2009, will remain on record as the worst ever Bushfires in Australia. The fires destroyed over 3,500 structures and burnt over 450,000 hectares of land. Most tragically, 173 people lost their lives. Many more were injured, and many psychologically scarred by the experience.
The Salvation Army launched its Victorian Bushfire Appeal immediately following Black Saturday and Australians responded immediately with generous donations, raising $23 nationally. During the initial crisis, The Salvation Army were on site providing more than 50,000 meals, providing counselling, coordinating material aid and offering over $2.5million in immediate financial assistance. The Salvation Army is ‘Still Standing’ with fire affected communities, working with them through the difficult recovery process.
To find out more view the Victorian Bushfire Response Report
2010-2011 Queensland floods and Cyclone Yasi
When floodwaters inundated towns and cities of central and south Queensland in late December 2010 and into January 2011, The Salvation Army was on hand immediately to offer assistance. The floods forced the evacuation of thousands of people from towns and cities, with at least 90 towns and over 900,000 people were affected. Tragically, 38 people were killed and 9 were declared missing, whilst damage was estimated at $2.38 billion.
Salvation Army Emergency Services teams served more than 200,000 meals and refreshments at 25 different disaster zones across the state. It seemed that just as one crisis was easing, another began. When Cyclone Yasi crossed land in central-north Queensland, The Salvation Army’s Emergency Services team from Innisfail was the first at the scene in devastated Tully. Salvation Army personnel served about 1,000 people a day during the crisis. As well as serving meals to stranded residents, tourists and emergency services personnel, The Salvation Army distributed new and donated goods to those affected by the disasters. Clothing and personal hygiene supplies were handed out and Salvation Army workers offered emotional support and referrals to other support services.
2013 NSW Bushfires
In October 2013, horrific bushfires devastated areas in the Blue Mountains and the Hunter Valley. The fires destroyed or damaged more than 350 homes, with the greatest losses in the Blue Mountains. From the early days The Salvation Army was ready and resourced to deliver a comprehensive, long-term recovery operation. Within four hours, the Salvation Army Emergency Services (SAES) teams had set up across 10 sites in fire zones in the NSW Southern Highlands, Western Sydney, Blue Mountains, Lithgow, Hawkesbury, the Central Coast and Hunter Valley In the following weeks, our teams worked around the clock in 24 locations, from community centres and local parks to farmers’ paddocks 70 kilometres from the nearest town.
During this crisis, The Salvation Army served 10,536 meals, 5,763 additional refreshments as well as over $11.3 million of welfare including gift cards, welfare payments and future grants. This support was provided across 24 operational sites with 412 volunteers putting in 3,296 volunteer hours. 559 clients also visited the Springwood bushfire relief centre, for 2,011 visits.
To find out more view the NSW Bushfire Disaster Report